Cardinal Richelieu's Policies The following lists some of his policies during his eighteen years in power: This, it was hoped, would bring better relations between the two counties and a possible pro-Catholic heir to the English throne.
See Article History Alternative Titles: His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe. Heritage, youth, and early career The family du Plessis de Richelieu was of insignificant feudal origins but, by intermarriage with the legal and administrative classes, rose to some prominence and acquired the seigneury of Richelieu in Poitou.
In his intelligence, administrative competence, and instinct for hard work, he resembled his middle-class ancestors. He was five years old when his father died, leaving estates that had been ruined by inflation and mismanagement during the Wars of Religion —98and he was conscious from his earliest years of the threat of penury.
This inspired in him the ambition to restore the honour of his house and evoked in him the sense of grandeur he was to attribute vicariously to France.
Unrest of the cathedral chapter threatened a revocation of the grant, and it became necessary for a member of the family to be consecrated bishop as soon as possible.
Henri, the eldest son, was heir to the seigneury of Richelieu; and Alphonse, the second son, had become a Carthusian monk; so the obligation fell on Armand-Jean, who was a student.
The prospect of a career in the church was not displeasing to the thin, pale, and at times sickly boy, for he had an inclination toward learning, a facility for debate, and a relish for the prospect of governing the lives of others.
Because he was below the canonical age for consecration upon the completion of his studies, he needed a papal dispensation. He found on his arrival a diocese ruined by the Wars of Religion, a hostile chapter, and a demoralized clergy, but his opponents quickly succumbed to the unaccustomed authority that radiated from the episcopal palace.
Richelieu was the first bishop in France to implement in his diocese the reforms decreed by the Council of Trentand he was also the first theologian to write in French and to establish the conventions of vernacular theological exposition.
He was a hard-working, conscience-stricken man, combatting forces dedicated to divisive political and social ends—a man obsessed with order as a superior moral end. The assassination of Henry IV in released separative forces that were endemic in the administrative system.
He put all his energy into persuading the assembly of his talents and the court of his support for royal authority.
In a clash between the clergy and the Third Estate the middle classes, artisans, and peasants on the subject of the relationship between the crown and the papacy, he played a conciliatory role, and he was prominent in moves of the clergy to persuade the Third Estate that the decrees of the Council of Trent should be promulgated.
Some months later he was appointed chaplain to the new queen, Anne of Austriawhich held the promise of eventual entry into the royal councilwhich, Richelieu had argued at the Estates-General, should accord first place to prelates of distinction.
Clever negotiations with another disobedient faction led to his appointment as a secretary of state in His year of office, however, coincided with war between Spain ruled by a Habsburg dynasty and Venicewhich invoked its alliance with France.
The ascendency that he gained over her, however, did not lead to her submission. Four years later the title of first minister was to be created for this office. The controversy occurred when the Protestant Swiss canton of Grisons invoked a treaty of protection with France against Spanish ambitions in the Valtellina valley.
The struggle had ramifications throughout Europe as the Protestants made common cause with Grisons and the Catholics with the Habsburgs. Richelieu recognized that vacillation would threaten domestic stability, and so he struck, expelling the papal troops.
It was an action that gained for Richelieu an instant reputation for decision and ruthlessness. It also disillusioned those who had seen in him a defender of Catholic interests and of a Franco-Spanish alliance.
From his first days in office Richelieu was the object of conspiracies to remove him, and the success of his security organization in ferreting out the disaffected and his manipulation of state trials made him misunderstood, feared, and detested. Yet according to the standards of the age, his administration of justice did not depart from the moral principles that he believed to underlie all government.
A respecter of law and history, he accepted the necessity of working with the traditional framework of administration. His sense of the feasible and his gift for seeing both sides of a question resulted in a pragmatism in practice that often contradicted his proclaimed theories, and he confused his critics by unexpected compromise and moderation.From a middle ranking and uninfluential bishop, to the man who molded France into a European powerhouse, Armand du Plessis de Richelieu achieved a number of accomplishments on a number of levels during the course of his life.
His family was somewhat prominent, belonging to the lesser nobility of Poitou: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France, and his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist.
The King and the duc de Luynes recalled Richelieu, believing that he would be able to reason with the Queen, which Richelieu was successful.
So, once the Queen was back on the court, Richelieu was on good terms with the King. And, soon after the duc de Luynes's death, the Cardinal began to .
Jules Mazarin was born Giulio Mazarin on July 14, , at Pescina, a village in the Abruzzi, Italy. He began his career as a soldier and diplomat in the service of the Pope. In this capacity he met Cardinal Richelieu in and decided to transfer his allegiance to him. Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu: Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII of France from to His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe.
The family du Plessis de Richelieu was of insignificant. Cardinal Richelieu - French Cardinal: French statesman and first minister of France (), born in Richelieu, France. A protégé of the queen mother, Marie de Medici, he became minister of state in