If any of the above-cited requirements are not met or if any of the statements or claims state or imply in any way that the pesticide is protecting more than the treated product itself, the treated product would need to be registered. One of the conditions in 40 CFR Another condition in 40 CFR More information on FTC's guidelines.
View next figure 2. The Niger Delta, which is home to some 31 million people [ 24 ], occupies a total area of about 75, km2 and makes up 7. This region cuts across over oil—producing communities with an extensive network of over producing oil wells and several petroleum production—related facilities [ 25 ].
The ecological zones in the Niger Delta region can be broadly group into tropical rainforest in the northern part of the Delta and mangrove forest in the warm coastlines of Nigeria. Mangrove forests and swamps, which are characterized by regular salt—water inundation, lie at the centre of a complex and sensitive ecosystem which Term papers on environmental issues vital to the local economy and accommodates important flora and fauna [ 26 ].
The Niger Delta, which is the largest mangrove forests in Africa and the third largest in the world, is the richest part of Nigeria in terms of petroleum resources and diverse natural ecosystems supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna.
Advances in evaluation and improved seismic technology showed that the Niger Delta petroleum systems consist of Lower Cretaceous lacustrineUpper Cretaceous—lower Paleocene marine and Tertiary deltaic [ 22 ].
The geological assessment of the source material has shown that the principal source for oil and gas in the Niger Delta belonging to the tertiary deltaic petroleum system [ 2223 ]. Over the past five decades, a total of about 1, exploration wells have been drilled to date in the delta basin, and about oil and gas fields of varying sizes have been documented [ 27 ].
These pioneering efforts ended abruptly with the outbreak of the World War I in The giant Bomu oil field, which has estimated ultimate recovery EUR of 0. The petroleum sector began to play a vital role in shaping the Nigerian economy and political destiny of the country in the early s.
When Nigeria became an independent nation on 1 OctoberShell—BP began to relinquish its acreage and its exploration licenses were converted into prospecting licenses that allowed development and production [ 2931 ]. Following the increase dominance of the Nigerian economy by petroleum sector, the sole concession policy was abandoned and exclusive exploration right was introduced to encourage other multinational oil companies aimed at accelerating petroleum exploration and production.
Most of these multinational oil companies recorded considerable successes in oil and gas exploration and production in both onshore and offshore fields in the Niger Delta.
According to Vassiliou [ 29 ], 17 of giant oil and gas production fields are located offshore and some of the examples include Bomu, Oso, Ubit, Assan, Meren, Abo, Bonga, Bonga Southwest and Agbami, etc. Bonga and Bonga Southwest were discovered in andrespectively and are operated by a joint venture led by SPDC [ 29 ].
Environmental Regulation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in Nigeria There are many approaches that have been developed for the safety and management of environmental impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production operations in the Niger Delta.
The emergence of Niger Delta as one of the most ecologically sensitive regions in Nigeria has led to the institutionalization of several statutory laws and environmental regulations to regulate the Nigerian petroleum industry.
Over the past years, the Nigerian Federal Government has promulgated laws and regulations so that oil and gas exploration and production operations, on both onshore and offshore oilfields, could be controlled by systems of limits which aim at minimizing the associated environmental impacts.
According to Salu [ 34 ], most of these statutory laws and regulations provide the framework for petroleum resources exploration and exploitation in Nigeria and only some of these environmental regulations give guidelines on issues of petroleum pollution.
Although the environmental laws and regulations in Nigeria have been poorly implemented, numerous environmental agencies have regulations that affect the exploration, development and production operations in the petroleum industry in Nigeria.
The establishment of FEPA in significantly changed the legal status quo of environmental regulation in the Nigeria petroleum industry. Under the FEPA Act, penalties and enforcement mechanisms were imposed, multinational oil companies could be held liable for costs of clean—up, restoration and multinational oil companies could pay compensation to parties injured by their illegal practices.
However, the existing statutory laws and regulations for environmental protection applicable to the Nigerian petroleum industry appear to be grossly inadequate and ineffective [ 793536 ]. Over the past fifty years, the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region have failed to adopt sustainable exploration and production practices due to increased costs of complying with environmental regulations.
Although comprehensive system of environmental regulations is now in place, environmental pollution associated with oil and gas exploration and production operations has continued to persist under these laws for several reasons. Therefore, unsustainable petroleum exploration and production practices and poor environmental management practices has impacted on the atmosphere, controlled waters, soils and sediments, biological diversity and sustainability of the natural ecosystem in the Niger Delta region for several decades.
According to Graf [ 39 ], there is evidence to indicate that crude oil sales income as a proportion of foreign exchange earnings escalated from 2.Preface: The following papers support skeptic arguments against Anthropogenic Climate Change (ACC), Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) or Alarmism [e.g.
Catastrophic Anthropogenic Global Warming (CAGW) or Dangerous Anthropogenic Global Warming (DAGW)].Please read the following introductory notes for more detailed information. Environmental Issues – Term Paper Topics.
Listed below are some ideas for your term paper in this class.
You can either choose one of these or come up with your own topic (as long as I approve it). G-DAE Working Paper No. “Basic Principles of Sustainable Development” 1 This paper will appear in The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
"Environmental migrants are persons or groups of persons who, for reasons of sudden or progressive changes in the environment that adversely affect their lives or living conditions, are obliged to have to leave their habitual homes, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, and who move either within their territory or abroad.".
[tags: Environmental Issues] Term Papers words | ( pages) | Preview. Rachel Louise Carson and the Environmental Movement - Rachel Louise Carson was born on May 27, in Springdale Pennsylvania.1 As a young child, Carson had already exhibited signs of great intelligence and a deep adoration of the ocean and nature.
She made the. Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels.
The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.