Rachel Carson 's book Silent Spring dealt with damage to bird species due to pesticide bioaccumulation. There is evidence that birds are continuing to be harmed by pesticide use. In the farmland of the United Kingdompopulations of ten different bird species declined by 10 million breeding individuals between andallegedly from loss of plant and invertebrate species on which the birds feed.
Chemical methods IRS with insecticides is an effective method of malaria control. Its strength lies in its effect on shortening the life span of adult mosquitoes near their human targets, which has a critical impact on malaria transmission MacDonald However, there is limited information on effectiveness and operational feasibility of IRS in African countries with highly endemic malaria, some of which recently reintroduced IRS or plan to do so.
Twelve insecticides belonging to four chemical classes are recommended for IRS in vector control, which collectively address only three modes of toxic action Nauen Pyrethroids are the most cost-effective alternatives to DDT in malaria control except where pyrethroid resistance occurs Walker There are two new developments with regard to IRS.
Second, new formulations of existing insecticides with prolonged residual activity are being developed as alternatives to DDT Hemingway et al. Two slow-release formulations of pyrethroids are already available on the market. The insecticide enhances the protective effect for the person under the net, but also has a beneficial effect on the community at large Hawley et al.
ITNs have been shown convincingly to cause substantial reductions in all-cause child mortality, under both experimental Lengeler and operational conditions Armstrong Schellenberg et al. They are effective in highly endemic settings by reducing the risk of severe disease, particularly in infants and young children before they have acquired a certain level of natural immunity Smith et al.
Two categories of ITNs are available: The former needs regular retreatment, a follow-up action that has proven difficult to achieve at field level. The latter is a relatively new technology that retains the efficacy for at least 3 years. Pyrethroids are the only chemical group recommended for use in ITNs.
There have been several new developments in ITN technology. Research on treatment with nonpyrethroids has been conducted to cope with the problem of resistance, but safety issues are a concern. At least one insecticide with novel chemistry is being developed for ITNs Hemingway et al.
It is critical that this unique product, once it enters the market, is reserved solely for public health purposes, thus reducing the risk of insecticide resistance in the future. New ITN products are not expected to come to market in the short term.
Both have been considered attractive interventions in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life-years averted Goodman et al. ITNs are generally more cost-effective in highly endemic settings Yukich et al.
The use of chemical insecticides as larvicides to control mosquito breeding can play an important role in malaria control where this is appropriate and feasible, particularly in urban settings, but the broad-spectrum effects of most chemicals are a concern to the integrity of aquatic ecosystems.
Moreover, chemical repellents could have a useful supplementary role in vector control Rowland et al.
Innovative work is in progress on the attractiveness of human odors to malaria vectors, with potential applications as mosquito attractants and repellents for use in trapping and personal protection Zwiebel and Takken Before the advent of synthetic insecticides, vector control depended primarily on environmental management; a meta-analysis of data mostly from that period indicated that it substantially reduced malaria risk Keiser et al.
Eliminating vector-breeding habitats and managing water bodies has the potential to suppress vector populations, particularly in human-made habitats or urban settings Walker and Lynch In irrigated agriculture, vector breeding can be controlled, for example, through land leveling and intermittent irrigation Keiser et al.
New irrigation systems or dams cause drastic changes in vector—human contact, and planning to avoid health risks is essential at the design stage.Benefits of pesticides. The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides' effects – the direct gains expected from their use.
For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage.
16 Natural Alternatives to Using Herbicide 1. Garden Design. When you’re planning your garden, consider keeping it as low maintenance as possible. Look at the problem areas and think of alternatives.
Use gravel under fruit areas, plant shrubs that will cover the soil, or pave pathways. Malathion, a pesticide in the organophosphate chemical family, is the most commonly used insecticide in the U.S.
It is often used in federal and state insect eradication programs and in mosquito control programs. Pesticides and Alternatives; Due to the difficulty of actually identifying and quantifying these effects, it is a good idea to limit exposure to pesticides of all kinds.
Use IPM alternatives to pesticides; If you use pesticides, choose less toxic products; Always read the entire label and follow all instructions exactly. Jul 10, · Unsafe use of hazardous pesticides is a neglected public health problem in developing countries.
This survey evaluates the effects of a training program to increase awareness on harmful effects of pesticides and to enhance capacity for safe handling involving 57 trained farmers, 98 neighboring farmers, 94 control farmers, and 23 pesticide retailers from villages in Chitwan, Nepal.
Such undesirable effects have led many pesticides to be banned, while regulations have limited and/or reduced the use of others. Over time, pesticides have generally become less persistent and more species-specific, reducing their environmental footprint.