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Particulates Sulfur dioxide The solution to some, but not all, of these pollution problems lies within the gas turbine combustor. A brief discussion follows.
Oxides of nitrogen NOx Only two of the seven oxides of nitrogen are regulated: Almost all emission concerns involving prime movers relate to NOx production and NOx controls.
The gas turbine is relatively clean compared with other prime movers. For example, gas turbines burning natural gas generally produce 4 to 12 times less NOx per unit of power than reciprocating engines produce.
However, NOx is the major factor in permitting gas turbine installations.
Carbon monoxide CO CO is also at a very low level in turbine exhaust because of the excess air in the combustion process. Therefore, it is usually not a problem. However, in some areas where the ambient level of CO is extremely high or when water injection is being used for NOx control in the gas turbine, CO may be a factor in obtaining permits.
Unburned hydrocarbons UHC Unlike reciprocating engines that produce a significant amount of UHC, gas turbines produce a low amount of UHC because the large amount of excess air involved in the gas turbine combustion process completely combusts almost all the hydrocarbons. Consequently, UHC emissions are rarely a significant factor in obtaining environmental permits for gas turbines.
Particulates No particulate measuring techniques have been perfected that produce meaningful results on gas turbine exhausts. This is rarely a factor in obtaining permits for gas turbines when clean fuels are burned in the gas turbine.
Sulfur dioxide SO2 Almost all fuel-burning equipment, including gas turbines, converts all the sulfur contained in the fuel to SO2. This makes SO2 a fuel problem rather than a problem associated with the characteristics of the turbine. The only effective way to control SO2 is by limiting the amount of sulfur contained in the fuel or by removing the SO2 from the exhaust gases by means of a wet scrubbing process.
Emission control The need to meet or surpass the emission standards set by federal, state, and local codes has required industrial gas turbine manufacturers to develop cleaner-burning turbines.
Dry emission systems have been developed with lean-premix fuel injectors, special combustion technology, and controls for reducing emissions of NOx and CO by creating lower maximum flame temperatures and more complete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels.
All industrial gas turbine manufactures have dry low emission products. The performance varies with the individual product because of differences in combustor design. These lean-burn systems reduce the formation of NOx and CO to very low levels, thus making it unnecessary to use expensive high-maintenance catalytic converters to eliminate NOx and CO after they are formed.Welcome to Pcom, the place dedicated to that DTC (diagnostic trouble code) PThe P code is a very popular one and that's why there's a site dedicated to that specific trouble code.
But, the efficiency of the converter is tied to the fuel trim of the engine. Most engines minutely alter the fuel trim to replenish the oxygen in the converter and to add fuel for reduction.
This helps to keep the converter at the correct temperature for the most efficient operation. The catalytic converters in the automobile can bind with the pollutants and reduce the waste materials that cause pollution.
gasoline engines, catalytic converters are reliable and efficient at reducing pollution. They convert an estimated. Yes, diesel engines do have catalytic converters. The most commonly present catalytic converter is Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC).
The catalyst used oxygen in the exhaust gas stream to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and the hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water.
Gas turbines range in size from microturbines at , hp ( kW). This page focuses on the gas turbine engine, the differences between types of turbines, and items to consider when they are applied as the prime mover. 2-way catalytic converters are oxidation catalysts.
They oxidize CO and HC but do not reduce changing. If the oxygen level in the exhaust stabilizes, the catalytic converter efficiency will drop considerably. In order for a catalyst to best clean up NOx the A/F ratio must be richer than however, NOx emissions from the engine are.