According to the World Health Organization, stress is a significant problem of our times and affects both physical as well as the mental health of people. Stress coping methods are the cognitive, behavioral and psychological efforts to deal with stress. These are all evidence-based techniques, easy to learn and practice, with good results in individuals with good health or with a disease. Keywords stress, stress management techniques, evidence based techniques Introduction Life exists through the maintenance of a complex dynamic equilibrium, termed homeostasis, that is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces, termed stressors, which can be emotional or physical in nature.
Older adults can present with anxiety or worries about physical health illness, changes in vision or hearingcognitive difficulties, finances, and changes in life status widowhood, care-giving responsibilities, retirement.
Clinicians need to be aware that older adults may deny psychological symptoms of anxiety fear, worry but endorse similar emotions with different words worries, concerns. As noted above, older adults also tend to emphasize somatic rather than Anxiety management interventions research articles symptoms of anxiety.
The patient health questionnaire PRIME-MD includes a brief screening tool that has demonstrated utility for identifying anxiety and depression in older adults in a medical setting. Older adults with medical conditions might falsely appear to have increased anxiety because they endorse frequent physical symptoms on health questionnaires.
Because many assessment instruments are designed to evaluate anxiety in younger adults and include a combination of physiological and psychological symptoms, new measures of anxiety may be needed for older adults.
A clear patient history can clarify the relationship between anxiety symptoms and medical conditions. Table 1 lists some self-report instruments that can be used to assess anxiety in older adults. Depression and anxiety frequently occur together and complicate diagnostic clarity. GAD often precedes an episode of depression, which suggests that it may be a risk factor29,32 Brief measures, such as the Penn State Worry Questionnaire—Abbreviated version can be useful as an efficient screening tool to differentiate worry from depressive rumination.
The literature suggests that both pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions can decrease symptoms of anxiety disorders in older adults. Benzodiazepine use can be associated with decreased cognitive functioning, impaired psychomotor performance, and increased risk of falls with resultant hip fracture.
Benzodiazepines also can have harmful drug interactions and cause dependence issues. Nonadherence to psychiatric medication is another relevant issue because older adults may forget to take medications, may be confused about dosages, or may overuse prescribed medications. The reasons for nonadherence may include adverse effects, cost considerations, confusion, or insufficient knowledge about proper use.
Antipsychotics are not recommended for the treatment of late-life anxiety. She is frequently concerned about physical symptoms that come and go, and she has many questions about her medications.
When Helen visits her physician, she always has a long list of questions, symptoms, and concerns. Helen has always been a worrier, but things got much worse after her husband of 40 years died 5 years ago.
He had been a significant source of reassurance for her. Once she was alone, she had to find other people to check in with about her worries.
Her daughter reports that Helen calls her too often with questions about her health, the grandchildren, and her finances. I just think too much. Chronic muscle tension has exacerbated her arthritis, and constant pain has developed in her back and neck.
Helen learned to identify physical tension, worry-related thoughts, and associated behaviors repetitive telephone calls to check in with her daughter. She recorded her symptoms on simple self-monitoring forms that required only checking boxes and writing brief phrases.
As Helen became more familiar with her anxiety symptoms, she realized what a huge impact they were having on her life and the lives of the people around her.Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get two FREE E-Books Our newsletter serves , with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.
OBJECTIVES: Anxiety is one of the most prevalent co-occurring symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The assessment and treatment recommendations proposed here are intended to help primary care providers with the assessment and treatment of anxiety in ASD.
METHODS: The Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network/Autism Intervention Research on Physical Health Anxiety . Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.: 15 These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others.
Individuals with social anxiety disorder fear negative. Nov 01, · Anxiety disorders are common in general practice and are associated with several problems regarding recognition and management. Aim To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving recognition, diagnosis, and management of .
Anxiety disorders occur in about 4% to 10% of community samples of older adults, and anxiety symptoms that do not meet criteria for a disorder affect 15% to 20%. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), characterized by persistent worry and associated physical symptoms lasting 6 months or longer, is the most common of the pervasive anxiety disorders in later life.
Stress Management Tips. People can learn to manage stress and lead happier, healthier lives. Here are some tips to help you keep stress at bay. Keep a positive attitude.