Patient Handouts Summary Depression is a serious medical illness. If you are one of the more than 19 million teens and adults in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist and interfere with your everyday life. Symptoms can include Feeling sad or "empty" Loss of interest in favorite activities Overeating, or not wanting to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain.
Psychological theories provide evidence-based explanations for why people think, behave, and feel the way they do. Personality factors, history and early experiences; and interpersonal relationships are seen as important factors in causing depression.
Unlike biology, psychology is not truly a unified field. There are still many disagreements within the field as to what subject matter is important to focus on, and what methods are best to use for studying the subject matter.
Consequently, different schools of thought within psychology have developed their own theories as to why someone becomes depressed. Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theory was the dominant school of thought within psychiatry and much of clinical psychology during the first part of the 20th century, at least with regard to ideas about how psychotherapy should be conducted.
Early psychodynamic approaches focused on the interrelationship of the mind or psyche and mental, emotional, or motivational forces within the mind that interact to shape a personality. Sigmund Freud, who is credited with inventing psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysis, influentially suggested that the unconscious mind is divided into multiple parts, including the irrational and impulsive Id a representation of primal animal desiresthe judgmental Super-ego a representation of the rules and norms of society inside the mindand the rational Ego which serves as an attempt to bridge the other two parts.
According to Freud, the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind can come into conflict with one another, producing a phenomena called repression a state where you are unaware of having certain troubling motives, wishes or desires but they influence you negatively just the same.
In general, psychodynamic theories suggest that a person must successfully resolve early developmental conflicts e. Mental illness, on the other hand, is a failure to resolve these conflicts. There are multiple explanations that fall under the psychodynamic "umbrella" that explain why a person develops depressive symptoms.
Psychoanalysts historically believed that depression was caused by anger converted into self-hatred "anger turned inward". A typical scenario regarding how this transformation was thought to play out may be helpful is further explaining this theory. Neurotic parents who are inconsistent both overindulgent and demandinglacking in warmth, inconsiderate, angry, or driven by their own selfish needs create a unpredictable, hostile world for a child.
As a result, the child feels alone, confused, helpless and ultimately, angry. However, the child also knows that the powerful parents are his or her only means of survival. So, out of fear, love, and guilt, the child represses anger toward the parents and turns it inwards so that it becomes an anger directed towards him or herself.
A "despised" self-concept starts to form, and the child finds it comfortable to think thoughts along the lines of "I am an unlovable and bad person. The child also feels a perpetual sense that he or she is not good enough, no matter how hard he or she tries. This neurotic need to please and perpetual failure to do so can easily spread beyond the situation in which it first appears, such that the child might start to feel a neurotic need to be loved by everyone, including all peers, all family members, co-workers, etc.
Psychodynamic theory has evolved a fair amount over its long history, and many variations of the original theory are available today.
One popular branch of modern psychodynamic theory, known as object relations theory, is concerned with how people understand and mentally represent their relationships with others.
The "objects" in object relations theory are representations of people how other people are experienced, represented and remembered by the person doing the objectification.
It is a foundational assumption of object relations theory that early relationships tend to set the tone for later relationships. According to object relations theory, depression is caused by problems people have in developing representations of healthy relationships.
Depression is a consequence of an ongoing struggle that depressed people endure in order to try and maintain emotional contact with desired objects. There are two basic ways that this process can play out: Even though these terms are not currently used in the DSM, some therapists may still use them to label different types of depression.
Anaclitic depression involves a person who feels dependent upon relationships with others and who essentially grieves over the threatened or actual loss of those relationships. Anaclitic depression is caused by the disruption of a caregiving relationship with a primary object and is characterized by feelings of helplessness and weakness.
A person with anaclitic depression experiences intense fears of abandonment and desperately struggles to maintain direct physical contact with the need-gratifying object. Introjective depression occurs when a person feels that they have failed to meet their own standards or the standards of important others and that therefore they are failures.
Introjective depression arises from a harsh, unrelenting, highly critical superego that creates feelings of worthlessness, guilt and a sense of having failure.
A person with introjective depression experiences intense fears of losing approval, recognition, and love from a desired object.Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tends to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves.
Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide. Disease: A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects .
Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tend to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves. Adolescent depression is greatly under diagnosed, and leads to serious difficulties in school, and personal adjustment. The reason why depression is.
Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tends to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves. Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide.
As far as depression is mental health, it is related not only to the physical state of the human body, including all complex process and part of it but also with the human psyche. It is known the fact that human psyche and state of the body are related.
An Analysis of the Effects of Adolescent Depression on the Human Psyche. 1, words. 3 pages. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in the Elderly. 2, The Symptoms and Treatment of Depression, the Sadness Disease.
4, words. 9 pages.
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in the Elderly. 2, An Analysis of .