Alexander r. 2008 essays on pedagogy

Apart from a few years spent in Johannesburg studying music at the University of the Witwatersrand Mohapeloa spent most of his life in Morija, where he worked in the Morija Printing Works and composed and trained choirs. After he retired in he taught music at the National Teacher Training College in Maseru until his death. He created a modern African choral idiom inspired by traditional Basotho music, jazz, western classical music and hymns.

Alexander r. 2008 essays on pedagogy

Socratic method Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.

It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.

The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates's most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophyethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy.

The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.

It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. An alternative interpretation of the dialectic is that it is a method for direct perception of the Form of the Good.

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Philosopher Karl Popper describes the dialectic as "the art of intellectual intuition, of visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of appearances.

Hadot writes that "in Plato's view, every dialectical exercise, precisely because it is an exercise of pure thought, subject to the demands of the Logosturns the soul away from the sensible world, and allows it to convert itself towards the Good. Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to demarcate the two.

The lengthy presentation of ideas given in most of the dialogues may be the ideas of Socrates himself, but which have been subsequently deformed or changed by Plato, and some scholars think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish.

Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical beliefs of Socrates from those of Plato and Xenophon has not proven easy, so it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates might actually be more the specific concerns of these two thinkers instead.

The matter is complicated because the historical Socrates seems to have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned others. When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed.

He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls".

Socrates's assertion that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke irritation, if not outright ridicule. Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete virtue can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers such as the prominent military general Pericles did not produce sons of their own quality.

Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture.

Alexander r. 2008 essays on pedagogy

This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons. Also, according to A.

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Long, "There should be no doubt that, despite his claim to know only that he knew nothing, Socrates had strong beliefs about the divine", and, citing Xenophon's Memorabilia, 1.

According to Xenophon, he was a teleologist who held that god arranges everything for the best. He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the philosopher.

Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: Plato's Symposiuma witch and priestess from Mantineataught him all he knows about erosor love ; and that Aspasiathe mistress of Periclestaught him the art of rhetoric.

Havelockon the other hand, did not accept the view that Socrates's view was identical with that of Archelaus, in large part due to the reason of such anomalies and contradictions that have surfaced and "post-dated his death.

The following are among the so-called Socratic paradoxes: No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. Virtue is sufficient for happiness. The term, " Socratic paradox " can also refer to a self-referential paradoxoriginating in Socrates's utterance, "what I do not know I do not think I know", [] often paraphrased as " I know that I know nothing.

Therefore, Socrates is claiming to know about the art of love, insofar as he knows how to ask questions. On the one hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium Diotima's Speech and Republic Allegory of the Cave describe a method for ascending to wisdom.

In Plato's Theaetetus aSocrates compares his treatment of the young people who come to him for philosophical advice to the way midwives treat their patients, and the way matrimonial matchmakers act. This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's Symposium 3.

For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher Apology.

Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed.

To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging.Alexander, R.J. () Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy (CREATE Research Monograph 20), 50 pp, Universities of Sussex and London, with the Continue Reading. Aug 04,  · Alexander r.

() essays on pedagogy >>> next page Personal essays on addiction Essay a streetcar named desire: condeming those who treat others with harshness and cruelty one of the main themes expressed by tennessee williams.

Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy.

Alexander r. 2008 essays on pedagogy

He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.

Hughes, M. et al () Supporting primary-secondary transfer through home-school knowledge exchange, Research Briefing London, TLRP. James, M. and Pollard, A. () Improving Teaching and Learning in Schools: A TLRP Commentary. when we look at the long history of media darlings, all gift wrapped for us, be they Glen Greenwald, or names like Pilger or Assange, we peek behind the curtain for handlers and may well safely assume they are all “CIA thugs” of one type or another. Gallery of Books And Toys courtesy Arvind Gupta the Toy Maker. Have fun and learn through Toys and Books. Page by Samir Dhurde.

Socrates - Wikipedia